Technology Milestones Year Technology Generation
1977 Personal Computers
1992 Computers and Broadband
1996 Computers, Cell Phones And Towers 1G
1998 Computers, Cell Phones, Towers, And Low Orbit Satellites 2G
2001 Computers, Cell Phones Towers, Low Orbit Satellites , And Wi-fi 3G
2007 Computers, Cell Phones, Towers, Low Orbit Satellites, Wi-fi, And Smart Phones 4G
2019 Computers, Cell Phones, Towers, Low Orbit Satellites, Wifi, Smart Phones, Faster Download Speeds, Self-driving Cars, Virtual And Augmented Reality, And The Internet Of Things 5G

Fig 1

The majority of the global population absorb high frequency radiation on a daily basis from smartphones, tablet computers, body-worn devices, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth transmitters, cordless phones, base stations, wireless utility meters and modulated/pulsed signals.

High frequency radiation is used for wireless signal transmission and this is usually referred to as radio frequency (RF) and microwave radiation.

For public health to be protected, decisions need to be based on accurate information. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) set international exposure guidelines for radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields in 1998.

The ICNIRP is an independent Non-Profit organization which outline the parameters for Eu and Ireland. The ICNIRP is an arm of the WHO ( World Health Organisation).  In Ireland we operate under the safety standards of the ICNIRP to protect the public fromEMF & RF radiation. Guidelines which are now 23 years outdated. As can be seen in Fig 1 below Irelands standards operate on 2G or second generation from 1998.

Effects And Consequences Of EMF & RF.

There are two types of effects from EMF and RF. Thermal and Non-Thermal.
Fig 2


In 1997 when standards and policy were set it was thought that the only concern was avoiding heating cell tissue. And therefore If the microwaves didn’t heat the tissue then they have no other effects.

In 1997 the typical mobile phone user was either military, business or medical. Since the top 98% of military recruits in 1989 weighed on average 100kg the policy makers in the US set their standards to the head of a 100kg individual. They used a manikan head and shoulders stuffed with saline solution and strapped a cellphone on. Then they placed a thermometer in the centre of the head and turned on the cell phone and recorded the temperature of the saline as it rose. Fig 2

The method of measurement is called the SAR, or specific absorption rate, is simply a measurement of how much EMF radiation human tissue absorbs from a specific phone.

And it is set at 1.6w/kg in US, Ireland and most of Europe. When tested, the dummy (that represents a person) can’t absorb more than 1.6 watts of radiation for each kg of body weight represented.

The measurements are based on a person holding the phone to their ear for 30 minutes.

In Fig 3 below is a comprehensive chart of the lowest radiation cell phones currently available.

1Samsung Galaxy Note 80.17Unlocked
2ZTE Axon Elite0.17Unlocked
3Verykool Vortex RS900.18Unlocked
4Samsung Galaxy Note0.19T-Mobile
5ZTE Nubia 50.225Unlocked
6Samsung Galaxy Note 20.28Verizon
7Samsung Galaxy Mega0.321AT&T
8Kyocera Dura XT0.328Sprint
9Pantech Discover0.35AT&T

Fig 3

Non Thermal Effects.

The ICNIRP only accept thermal effects of RF fields and focuses on average energy absorbed. The controlled measures of overall specific absorption rates (SARs) are suited to the assessment of temperature rises in cells or tissues but as organisms we have exquisite sensitivities. The non thermal effects have to do with the little rhythm within our cells can be very disturbing.

Below is a statement by Professor Franz Adelkofer. The co-ordinator of the Reflex Report which was a report by 12 institutes in 7 countries that looked at the long term genetic damage in the blood and brain of mobile phone users.

There is real evidence that hyperfrequency electro magnetic fields can have geno-toxic effects. And this damaged DNA is always the cause of cancer. We’ve found these damaging effects on the genes at levels well below the safety limits on the biological effects not on the Thermic ones, they should be based on biology not on physics”.

This is the crux of the whole issue, which is that our safety guidelines are based on the false assumption that if there is not a heating effect or if there is no thermal effect that is impacting the tissue, there is no harm and this has been long since out of date.

Other countries are responding and recommending lower exposures and Ireland we operate under WHO guidelines. Which as we can see below are exposure limits are on the well beyond the margins of being safe.

Exposure Limit, 1800MHz

Source (Year) microWatts/square meter
US Gov’t, FCC (1997), Industry Canada USA 10,000,000 – Outdoors Canada 4,400,000 – Outdoors
World Health Org (1998) 9,000,000 outdoors
Australia (1988) 2,000,000
Russia (1988), Italy (1999), Toronto (2000) 10,000
Saltzburg, Austria (1998) 1,000
Dr. N. Cherry (NZ) (2000) 200
Biolnitiative (2015) : Studies Report Effects at <1
Building Biology, Slight Concern (2008) 0.1 to 10 indoors

To a physicist, it may appear that low-frequency and radio-frequency radiation must be harmless to humans, unless it is so strong that it heats our tissue or damages molecules in some other way (Thermal effects). It sounds logical, and some scientists do still take this position on EMF.

All our official radiation limits are based on heating effect. Mobile phone SAR ratings are also founded on heating effect. But these ideas are flawed because it is NOT the heating effect of electromagnetic radiation that causes damage to our cells.

A biologist views things differently. To a biologist, it is obvious that if human cells react to low levels of EMF by changing their behaviour, something must be going on. Then the biologist looks at the consequences to the organism of this changed cellular behaviour to see whether the effects are neutral, beneficial or harmful.

What EMF does to your body ?

The EMF health effects listed below are just a sample from the mountain of research that has been reported in scientific literature most notably the bio-initiative report. Most of the damage (disease) caused by EMF only appears after many years of exposure.

Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Radiation

Protein Changes in Skin. Ten women volunteered to participate in a study in which radiation (900mH) from GSM cell phones was applied to them for one hour to simulate a phone call. Scientists then screened their skin cells for any stress reactions. They looked at 580 different proteins and found two which were substantially affected. (One was increased by 89% and the other decreased by 32%). New Scientist February 23, 2008.

DNA Damage. German research group Verum studied the effect of radiation on human and animal cells. After being exposed to cell phone frequencies the cells showed increased breaks in their DNA. These DNA breaks could not always be repaired by the cells. The damage would therefore be passed on to future cells which could predispose them to becoming cancerous. USA Today December 21, 2004.

Brain Cell Damage. A study of the effects of cell phone frequencies (applied at non-thermal intensity) on rat brains showed damage to the neurons (brain cells) in various brain parts, including the cortex, hippocampus and basal ganglia. June 2003 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives

Aggressive growth in Leukemia Cells Researchers at the National Research Council in Bologna, Italy found that Leukemia cells exposed to cell phone frequencies (900mH) for 48 hours replicated more aggressively. New Scientist October 24, 2002.

The Biolnitiative 2012 Report has been prepared by 29 authors from ten countries, ten holding medical degrees (MDS), 21 PhDs, and three MSC, MA or MPHs. Among the authors are three former presidents of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, and five full members of BEMS.

The Biolnitiative 2012 Report has been prepared by 29 authors from ten countries, ten holding medical degrees (MDS), 21 PhDs, and three MSC, MA or MPHs. Among the authors are three former presidents of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, and five full members of BEMS

Fig 4

Increased Blood Pressure. Researchers in Germany found that one-time use of a cell phone for 35 minutes could cause an increase in resting blood pressure of between 5 and 10mm Hg. Lancet June 20, 1998.

79% of studies (61 out of 77) would have demonstrated evidence of significantly increased ROS or oxidative stress in response to RF fields (Figure 4). Oxidative stress is a toxic state which can lead to cellular DNA, RNA, protein or lipid damage, is accepted as a major cause of cancer (7), as well as being implicated in many reproductive, central nervous system, cardiovascular, immune and metabolic disorders.

The potential dangers of electromagnetic fields and their effect on the environment as outlined by the council of Europe.


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